Zooarchaeology (Cambridge Manuals in Archaeology)
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This book serves as an introductory text for students interested in identification and analysis of animal remains from archaeological sites. This revised edition reflects developments in zooarchaeology that have occurred during the past decade. It includes new sections on enamel ultrastructure and incremental analysis, stable isotyopes and trace elements, ancient genetics and enzymes, environmental reconstruction, people as agents of environmental change, applications of zooarchaeology in animal conversation and heritage management, and a discussion of issues pertaining to the curation of archaeofaunal materials.
resource management projects and similar contract or salvage programs in many countries (Choyke 2004; Roskams 2001 ; Zeiler 2004). Frequently, these projects are brief, and data recovery is extremely limited. To develop competitive proposals with a theoretical basis, many contractors include subsistence, site function, seasonality, and economic studies in their research designs. To address such questions, environmental studies, including zooarchaeology, are needed. The funding made available by
plate once existed. When adult size is reached in mammals, the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone and the epiphysis fuses to the diaphysis. In some elements, such as the proximal femur and humerus, several epiphyses must first fuse with each other before eventually fusing as a group with the diaphysis. As maturation continues, the epiphyseal line is slowly remodeled and is not visible in old individuals. In some elements (e.g., the astragalus) there is no epiphysis and growth occurs from a
fishes, the female is sometimes larger than the male – occasionally much larger. Although very large softshell turtles (Trionycidae) are almost certainly females, small individuals can be either males or small females. One of the most extreme examples of size difference between males and females is found in anglerfishes (Lophiiformes). The male anglerfish is tiny and becomes parasitic on the female, to the point of mingling their blood supply. This is an adaptation for finding each other in the
comparing each archaeological specimen with reference specimens. Contrary to the notion that there are no unidentifiable bones (Binford and Bertram 1977), specimens should be identified to a particular taxon only if they can be unquestionably assigned to it on the basis of morphological features found through comparison with reference specimens after all other possible attributions are excluded by the same procedure. For example, it should not be assumed that all Indeterminate Mollusc specimens
commonly included only taxonomic attribution and specimen count. Although we do not recommend doing so, specimen count can be obtained without identifying specimens to either taxon or element. Sometimes specimens are counted just like any other artifact to demonstrate spatial patterns (e.g., South 1977:179–82). Although specimen counts seem subject to few procedural biases, counting does require some decisions (Chaplin 1971 :64–5; Ringrose 1993; Watson 1972, 1979). The most routine instance