The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant: c. 8000-332 BCE (Oxford Handbooks)
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This Handbook aims to serve as a research guide to the archaeology of the Levant, an area situated at the crossroads of the ancient world that linked the eastern Mediterranean, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. The Levant as used here is a historical geographical term referring to a large area which today comprises the modern states of Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, western Syria, and Cyprus, as well as the West Bank, Gaza, and the Sinai.
Unique in its treatment of the entire region, it offers a comprehensive overview and analysis of the current state of the archaeology of the Levant within its larger cultural, historical, and socio-economic contexts. The Handbook also attempts to bridge the modern scholarly and political divide between archaeologists working in this highly contested region. Written by leading international scholars in the field, it focuses chronologically on the Neolithic through Persian periods -- a time span during which the Levant was often in close contact with the imperial powers of Egypt, Anatolia, Assyria, Babylon, and Persia. This volume will serve as an invaluable reference work for those interested in a contextualised archaeological account of this region, beginning with the tenth millennium BCE 'agricultural revolution', until the conquest of Alexander the Great that marked the end of the Persian period.
from approximately 4500 to 3700/3600 BC; for the early fifth millennium, a period of transition, terminological and chronological issues remain unresolved. Radiocarbon dates suggest some sites existed earlier (Gilat and Teleilat al-Ghassul) and overlap with sites having more recent radiocarbon sequences [e.g. Shiqmim (c.4700–3700 BC): Burton and Levy 2001]. Terms for periods, phases, and ‘cultures’, including Jericho VIII/IX, Lodian, Coastal Neolithic, Besorian, Qatifian, Tsafian, and Wadi Rabah,
University of New England. —— and D. Frankel (1999). Characterizing the Philia facies: material culture, chronology, and the origin of the Bronze Age in Cyprus. American Journal of Archaeology 103: 3–43. —— (2001). Clay cattle from Marki: iconography and ideology in Early and Middle Bronze Age Cyprus. Archaeologia Cypria 4: 71–82. —— (2004). Intensive site survey: implications for estimating settlement size, population and duration in prehistoric Bronze Age Cyprus. In M. Iacovou (ed.),
analyses (Falconer 1987) suggested a local distribution of the products of kilns, but the presence of kilns in Phase 1 at Iktanu (Prag 1988) and other Intermediate Bronze kilns at Beth Yerah, Jebel Qa′aqir, Tel Yeruham, and Tel Yosef (Stern 1993: 255–9, 665–7, 1506–9; Gophna 1992: 145), along with the regional nature of the ceramics, suggests there were many local workshops, not just domestic production. Petrographic studies have confirmed this (Goren 1996). Pottery at Nahal Refaim was also
Faust, A., and S. Bunimovitz (2003). The four-room house: embodying Iron Age Israelite society. Near Eastern Archaeology 66: 22–31. Finkelstein, I. (1996). Ethnicity and origin of the Iron I settlers in the Highlands of Canaan: can the real Israel stand up? Biblical Archaeologist 59.4: 198–212. —— (2000). The Philistine settlements: when, where and how many? In E. D. Oren (ed.), The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment. Philadelphia: University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 159–80.
440–1, 460, 473–5 Late Bronze Age 514, 530–1, 532, 533, 550, 570, 571, 573–4 Iron Age 611, 615–16, 629–30, 631, 632, 638, 679, 690–1, 753, 773 Persian period 844 MODERN COUNTRIES, GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS and ANCIENT TERRITORIES Aramean states 690–1 Cisjordan 80, 310, 311, 317, 322, 460, 473–5, 550, 629–30, 631, 632 Egypt 78–9 Jordan 473–5, 570, 573–4 Judah 753 Lebanon 298, 440–1, 530–1, 532, 533, 611 Moab 773, 775, 775 Philistia 638 Syria 418, 421, 422, 426, 514, 615–16 Transjordan 571