Textbook of Human Disease in Dentistry
Mark Greenwood, Robin Seymour, John Meechan
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
The Textbook of Human Disease in Dentistry is a comprehensive resource for all students of dentistry that provides uniquely integrated coverage of medicine, surgery, pharmacology, therapeutics, pathology and microbiology. It aims to provide its readers with the medical context of dentistry, to promote better understanding of how to provide effective dental treatment to patients affected by diseases and conditions. The Textbook of Human Disease in Dentistry is structured around the systems of the body and includes chapters on immunological disease, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory medicine, gastroenterology, dermatology, musculoskeletal disorders and neurological and special senses. A key aspect of the book is the relevance of particular diseases and/or their drug treatment to dentistry and in turn to patient dental management. Additional chapters are therefore provided on topics such as clinical examination and history taking, inflammation and anti–inflammatory drugs, infection control, pain and anxiety control, and care of the elderly. Filled with useful features and written in a lucid and accessible style, this book will provide its readers with a sound and accessible grounding in human diseases and their drug treatment and how they relate to dental care. Includes sections on all major diseases and conditions, describing aetiology, symptoms and treatment. Places dentistry in a medical context, providing guidance on examination and treatment protocols. Features information on drug treatment and planning dental care around it Illustrated with helpful clinical photographs, showing diseases and conditions.
Dr Mark Greenwood is a Consultant and Honorary Senior Lecturer in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Newcastle upon Tyne. He is qualified in both dentistry and medicine and has fellowships in Dental Surgery, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Surgery. A major interest is medical and dental education. He has written several publications in peer reviewed journals, mainly relating to medicine in dentistry and has published a book on the same subject. Professor Robin Seymour is at the School of Dental Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne. He has published 8 books on topics related to human diseases, especially in the area of pharmacology. Likewise, Dr John Meechan has a similar profile. Other authors, Max Robinson , Iain Mcleod and Roger Jay provide input in the area of pathology, radiology and general medicine respectively.
this setting. In clinical situations, visual acuity is usually measured with the Snellen chart, which consists of a series of letters ranging from the largest at the top of the chart to the smallest at the bottom (Fig. 9E.1). The largest letter at the top of the chart would normally be readable at 60 metres. Visual acuity is recorded as a fraction. The numerator at the top refers to the distance at which the chart is viewed during testing and the denominator at the bottom the lowest line that can
a ‘fluttering’, Table 5A.4 A differential diagnosis of chest pain ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Myocardial infarction Angina Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) Pleuritic pain Musculoskeletal pain Pain secondary to trauma ‘Panic attack’ (see Chapter 20) 70 Textbook of Human Disease in Dentistry or a pause or slow heartbeat be noted as a thump. It may occur normally after exercise and can be a feature of anxiety. Loss of consciousness due to a lack of blood flow to the brain is termed syncope. Low blood
release of natriuretic peptides which stimulate salt and water loss via the kidneys. While many of these mechanisms may be helpful in the short term in acute heart failure, they are maladaptive in chronic heart failure. Vasoconstriction, although maintaining the blood pressure, increases the resistance against which the failing heart has to pump. Sodium and water retention aggravates oedema, and increases the circulating volume, thereby stretching the heart further. Constant stimulation of the
(e.g. methotrexate alveolitis). The lungs are particularly vulnerable to infections when the patient is immunocompromised by HIV infection or by the use of immunosuppressive drugs (e.g. ciclosporin or azathioprine). Investigating respiratory disease Some simple investigations (e.g. peak expiratory flow rate or oximetry) can be performed in the dental surgery and are useful in assessing and monitoring the patient’s respiratory status. The peak expiratory flow rate is the maximum rate of airflow
the history dioxide retention in some patients with COPD. Patients who retain carbon dioxide may also have a flapping tremor of the hands when they are held outstretched, as mentioned earlier. It may be evident that the patient is using their accessory muscles of respiration – a sign of significant respiratory impairment. The respiratory rate, as one of the vital signs, should be noted. It is not required to examine the chest formally, but in many clothed patients it is possible to make a gross