BRS Microbiology and Immunology (Board Review Series)
Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub
BRS Microbiology and Immunology is designed specifically for medical and graduate students for successful preparation for the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE). This newest edition features a full-color design and illustrations throughout. The book is divided into 12 chapters and presents both a "bug" approach followed by an organ systems approach. It remains a succinct description of the most important microbiological and immunological concepts and critical details needed to understand important human infections and the immune system function and malfunction. End-of-chapter review tests feature updated USMLE-style questions with rationales and four USMLE comprehensive examinations (in 50 question blocks like Step 1) help test memorization and mastery of the subject.
A companion website offers the fully searchable text and an online question bank.
Trichomonas have simple trophozoites and cysts. 2. Trypanosoma and Leishmania species are hemoflagellates that infect blood and tissues. They have life cycles involving several forms: a. Trypomastigotes are free-living, elongated, flagellated forms with an undulating membrane. They are seen extracellularly in blood in Trypanosoma infections. b. Amastigotes are ‘‘oval’’ cells that do not have a flagellum or an undulating membrane. They are seen in infected tissue (e.g., heart tissue infected with
some requiring salt (halophilic) to grow. (2) Cause cholera (mainly O1 and O139 and strains of Vibrio cholerae), gastroenteritis (Vibrio parahaemolyticus), and cellulitis or hepatitis/septicemia (Vibrio vulnificus). c. Genus: Aeromonas. These ubiquitous rods grow in fresh and salt water (opportunists). 10. Gram-negative spiral-shaped rods: Campylobacter and Helicobacter a. General characteristics (1) Capnophilic (require elevated CO2) and microaerophilic (grow only in the presence of low oxygen).
(typhoid) Osteomyelitis in sickle-cell disease Shigellosis (inflammatory diarrhea) Local abscesses Impetigo Food poisoning Endocarditis Osteomyelitis Sepsis (MSSA, MRSA) Endocarditis (artificial valve) infections catheter, prosthetic devices Urinary tract infections Neonatal sepsis (early and late onset) Neonatal meningitis Pneumonia Otitis media Septicemia Chronic bronchitis (COPD) Pharyngitis Scarlet fever Rheumatic fever and heart disease Acute glomerulo nephritis Impetigo
(Table 5.2). a. Live virus vaccines use attenuated virus strains that are relatively avirulent. (1) Advantages: may be administered in a single dose by the natural route of infection; induces a wide spectrum of antibodies and cytotoxic cells. (2) Disadvantages: limited shelf life, possible reversion to virulence, and possible production of persistent infection. (3) Examples include vaccines for measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, rotavirus, yellow fever, and some adenovirus strains. t a b l e
associated with Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. 1. Infectious mononucleosis a. This systemic disease of children and young adults (sometimes called the kissing disease) is characterized by sore throat, fever, enlarged lymph nodes and spleen, and sometimes hepatitis. b. Diagnosis (1) Associated with the production of atypical reactive T lymphocytes (Downey cells) and IgM heterophile antibodies (IgM interacts with Paul-Bunnell antigen on sheep, horse, or bovine erythrocytes